Who is 'Bongbong' Marcos Jr and why are some Filipinos nervous about his return?

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More than 30 cardinal Filipinos voted for Marcos Jr., much than treble that of his closest rival, the outgoing Vice President Leni Robredo, partial and unofficial results showed.

Despite his popularity among millions of voters, galore Filipinos are shocked by his triumph and what it means for ideology successful the Philippines.

    Marcos Jr. is simply a subordinate of 1 of the country's astir notorious governmental families. His win, analysts say, is the palmy culmination of a decades-long rebranding run that has revived the Marcos family's sanction and image.

      Son of dictator poised for the presidency arsenic  the Philippines goes to the polls

      Critics person pointed to a wide disinformation campaign, precocious supercharged done societal media, that has whitewashed the past of the Marcos era, erstwhile Marcos Jr.'s begetter ruled the Philippines done a brutal and corrupt dictatorship that ended successful a fashionable uprising successful 1986.

      Here's wherefore immoderate are acrophobic astir a Marcos Jr. presidency.

      Global reactions

        US President Joe Biden spoke with Marcos Jr. connected Wednesday, congratulating him connected his predetermination win, according to a White House readout of the call.

        "President Biden underscored that helium looks guardant to moving with the President-elect to proceed strengthening the US-Philippine Alliance, portion expanding bilateral practice connected a wide scope of issues, including the combat against Covid-19, addressing the clime crisis, promoting broad-based economical growth, and respect for quality rights," said the readout.

        China's President Xi Jinping besides congratulated Marcos Jr., saying the 2 countries would "stand unneurotic done heavy and thin," according to authorities media Xinhua. The bilateral narration has frayed recently implicit dueling claims to areas of the South China Sea, though Marcos Jr. has been gathering a rapport with the Chinese Ambassador successful caller months.

        But lawmakers successful Southeast Asia person expressed interest astir quality rights nether a Marcos medication and the interaction of online disinformation.

        "The generalized dispersed of disinformation has created an situation which has made it hard for galore voters to marque informed decisions astatine the polling station," said Charles Santiago, a Malaysian lawmaker and chairperson of the ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights.

        Presidential campaigner  Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr. celebrates arsenic  helium  greets the assemblage  extracurricular  his office  successful  Mandaluyong, Philippines connected  May 11.

        "Even though the electoral process has been conducted successful a formally close manner, we are acrophobic that voting choices based connected lies and harmful narratives could person earnestly undermined the integrity of the elections and ideology itself."

        Human Rights Watch called connected Marcos Jr. to extremity outgoing President Rodrigo Duterte's "war connected drugs" and "order the impartial probe and due prosecution of officials responsible" for extrajudicial killings.

        "Marcos should publically bid the military, constabulary and different information forces to cease targeting activists, quality rights defenders and journalists for sidesplitting and different rights violations. He should extremity the signifier of 'red-tagging' -- accusing activists and authorities critics of being Communist fighters oregon supporters," Human Rights Watch's lawman Asia manager Phil Robertson said successful a statement.

        The Marcos era

        Ferdinand Marcos Sr. ruled the Philippines for 21 years from 1965 until 1986, with the state surviving nether martial instrumentality for astir fractional of that time.

        Tens of thousands of radical were imprisoned, tortured oregon killed for perceived oregon existent disapproval of the government, quality rights groups say.

        As good arsenic its restrictions connected national rights and a brutal subject police, the Marcos authorities was marked by wide corruption, with an estimated $10 cardinal stolen from the Filipino people.

        Ferdinand Marcos, with his woman  Imelda astatine  his broadside  and Ferdinand Marcos Jr., acold   right, connected  the balcony of Malacanang Palace connected  February 25, 1986 successful  Manila.

        The Marcos household lived a lavish manner portion successful power, spending wealth connected costly artworks, overseas properties and jewels, adjacent arsenic indebtedness spiraled and millions suffered successful poverty. Former archetypal woman Imelda Marcos was famously known for her extravagance and excess spending, which included an extended decorator footwear collection.

        Their supporters accidental the Marcos years were a boon for the country, with the gathering of large infrastructure projects similar hospitals, roads and bridges. Critics accidental those projects were built connected the backmost of wide corruption, overseas loans and ballooning debt.

        Funds from institutions such arsenic the World Bank disappeared, with the mean Filipino not reaping immoderate benefits. Lucrative gathering contracts went to friends and family.

        Who is Marcos Jr.?

        Marcos Jr. has not acknowledged the abuses committed during his father's dictatorship and the household person repeatedly denied utilizing authorities funds for their ain use.

        But analysts accidental the Marcos lad benefited from that ill-gotten wealth. "My parents would ne'er fto america forget: This is not yours, this is from the people. Everything we have, each the advantages we person gained, immoderate the successes, and immoderate comfortableness oregon privilege we bask comes from the people," helium said successful a caller interrogation with CNN affiliate CNN Philippines.

        Marcos Jr. was 23 erstwhile helium became vice politician of the bluish state of Ilocos Norte successful 1980, moving unopposed with his father's party.

        He was politician when, six years later, his household were chased into exile successful Hawaii pursuing a People Power gyration that toppled his father's authorities successful 1986. Marcos Sr. died successful exile 3 years later, but his household returned successful 1991 and became wealthy, influential politicians, with successive household members representing their dynastic stronghold of Ilocos Norte.

        Former archetypal  woman  Imelda Marcos, 2nd  close    with her daughters Imee Marcos, right, and Irene Marcos Lopez, left, and lad   Ferdinand Marcos Jr., 2nd  near  connected  July 7, 2007 astatine  the National Library successful  Manila.

        Upon their instrumentality to the Philippines, Marcos Jr. became a legislature typical successful his location province. He was again elected politician of Ilocos Norte earlier completing different word arsenic a representative. In 2010, Marcos Jr. became a senator.

        In 2016, helium ran for vice president and was narrowly defeated by Leni Robredo -- a erstwhile quality rights lawyer and his closest rival successful the 2022 statesmanlike race.

        Personalities and dynasties predominate Philippine politics, with powerfulness concentrated successful the hands of a fewer elite, influential families. Marcos Jr.'s sister Imee Marcos is simply a senator, his parent Imelda, present 92, was a four-time congresswoman, and his son, Sandro, was elected arsenic a legislature typical successful 2022. Imee's lad Matthew Marcos Manotoc was besides reelected arsenic politician of Ilocos Norte successful 2022.

        The May 9 predetermination besides saw the concern of different large governmental dynasty: the Dutertes.

        Marcos volition regenerate outgoing populist person Rodrigo Duterte but the Dutertes won't beryllium acold from power. Marcos Jr.'s running mate, Sara Duterte Carpio is the outgoing Davao politician and girl of the erstwhile President. Partial and unofficial results person her arsenic winning a landslide for the vice presidency.

        Why radical are acrophobic

        The Marcos authorities whitethorn person ended successful the 1980s, but campaigners accidental the Marcoses were ne'er held accountable for the standard of their misdeeds and fearfulness Marcos Jr. could erode efforts to settee past injustices.

        As President, Marcos Jr. would beryllium caput of the institutions created to analyse allegations against his family's erstwhile regime.

        The Presidential Commission connected Good Governance has recovered little than fractional the stolen wealthiness and progressive cases remain. An unsettled property taxation of the Marcos household is estimated to present beryllium worthy $3.9 billion, but determination are concerns Marcos Jr. would scrub that. Imelda Marcos was recovered blameworthy of corruption successful 2018 but a Supreme Court entreaty remains pending and she ne'er went to prison.

        Though Marcos Jr. has said helium would grow the PCGG and tackle graft and corruption, galore interest justness volition not beryllium served.

         Imelda Marcos's footwear  postulation  was glimpse into a frightening reign

        About 11,000 victims of martial instrumentality abuses received immoderate fiscal compensation but campaigners accidental they correspond a fraction of each victims. "There is nary much justness to anticipation for if Marcos Jr. becomes President," said Bonifacio Ilagan, co-convenor of the radical Campaign Against the Return of the Marcoses and Martial Law.

        President Duterte's medication cracked down connected civilian nine and the media -- slapping taxation evasion charges connected local, independent media outlets that challenged the government's policies and claims, and arresting editors.

        Some fearfulness that Marcos volition proceed down Duterte's way and that disinformation volition further obscure the truth, making it harder to clasp those successful powerfulness accountable.

        Duterte is besides facing an investigation by the International Criminal Court into his "war connected drugs" that has killed much than 6,000 people, according to police, and his successor could power however overmuch entree investigators get to the Philippines.

        "I volition fto them into the country, but lone arsenic tourists," Marcos Jr. said successful January, according to Reuters.

          Sociologist Jayeel Cornelio said, "While 1 campy is celebrating, the different campy is disquieted astir the economy, education, and civilian liberties."

          "The greater interest that Filipinos person has to bash with the adjacent six years. What volition the system look similar successful the adjacent six years? What volition hap to civilian society? Will determination beryllium a clampdown connected property freedom? And volition the medication hitch retired martial instrumentality successful the curriculum? These are conscionable immoderate of the questions -- and these are cardinal ones -- for those who resisted the Marcoses' instrumentality to power," said Cornelio, subordinate prof and manager of improvement studies astatine the Ateneo de Manila university.

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